A valid and reliable tool to measure indoor tanning addiction

August 28, 2017



Evidence suggests that indoor tanning (IT) may have addictive properties. However, many instruments for measuring IT addiction show poor validity and reliability. Recently, a new instrument, the Behavioral Addiction Indoor Tanning Screener (BAITS), has been developed.


Our aim was to test validity and reliability of the BAITS by using a multi-method approach.


We used data of the first wave of the National Cancer Aid Monitoring on Sunbed Use (NCAM), which includes a cognitive pretest (08/2015) and a Germany-wide representative survey (10-12/2015). In the cognitive pretest 10 participants were interviewed, while 3,000 individuals aged 14 to 45 years were included in the representative survey. Potential symptoms of IT addiction were measured via the BAITS, a brief screening survey including seven items (answer categories: yes vs. no). Criterion validity was assessed by comparing the results of BAITS with usage parameters. Additionally, we tested internal consistency and construct validity.


19.7% of current and 1.8% of former IT users were screened positive for symptoms of a potential IT addiction. We found significant associations between usage parameters and the BAITS (criterion validity). Internal consistency (reliability) was good (Kuder-Richardson-20=0.854). The BAITS was shown to be a homogenous construct (construct validity).


Compared to other short instruments measuring symptoms of a potential IT addiction, the BAITS seems to be a valid and reliable tool. With its short lengths and the binary items the BAITS is easy to use in large surveys.


Diehl, K., Görig, T., Breitbart, E.W., Greinert, R., Hillhouse, J.J., Stapleton, J.L. and Schneider, S. (), First Evaluation of the Behavioral Addiction Indoor Tanning Screener (BAITS) in a nationwide representative sample. Br J Dermatol. Accepted Author Manuscript. doi:10.1111/bjd.15888

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